Trade and Commerce >> Labour Laws

Labour Laws

India provides for core labour standards of ILO for welfare of workers and to protect their interests. India has a number of labour laws addressing various issues such as resolution of industrial disputes, working conditions, labour compensation, insurance, child labour, equal remuneration etc. Labour is a subject in the concurrent list of the Indian Constitution and is therefore in the jurisdiction of both central and state governments. Both central and state governments have enacted laws on labour issues. Central laws grant powers to officers under central government in some cases and to the officers of the state governments in some cases.

Website of Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India is:

http://labour.nic.in


The main central laws dealing with labor issues are given below: -

            Workmen's Compensation Act 1923

           Minimum Wages Act 1948

           Payment of Wages Act 1936

           Industrial Disputes Act 1947

           Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952

           Payment of Bonus Act 1965 Payment of Gratuity Act 1972

           Maternity Benefit Act 1961

           Industrial Employment (Standing orders) Act 1946

   

           List of various central labour laws http://labour.nic.in/act/welcome.html

   

           Workmen's Compensation Act 1923

           The Workmen's Compensation Act provides that compensation shall be provided to a workman for any injury suffered during the course of his employment or to his dependents in the case of his death. The Act provides for the rate at which compensation shall be paid to an employee.

              Workmen's Compensation Act 1923

           http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=192308 

   

           Minimum Wages Act 1948

          The Minimum Wages Act prescribes minimum wages for all employees in all establishments or working at home in certain employments specified in the schedule of the Act. Central and State Governments revise minimum wages specified in the schedule.

              Minimum Wages Act 1948 http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=194811

   

           Payment of Wages Act 1936

           The Payment of Wages Act regulates issues relating to time limits within which wages shall be distributed to employees and that no deductions other than those authorized by the law are made by the employers.

              Payment of Wages Act 1936 http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=193604

   

           Industrial Disputes Act 1947

         The Industrial Disputes act 1947 provides for the investigation and settlement of industrial disputes in an industrial establishment relating to lockouts, layoffs, retrenchment etc. It provides the machinery for the reconciliation and adjudication of disputes or differences between the employees and the employers. Industrial undertaking includes an undertaking carrying any business, trade,manufacture etc.

            The Act lays down the conditions that shall be complied before the termination/retrenchment or layoff of a workman who has been in continuous service for not less than one year under an employer. The workman shall be given one month's notice in writing, indicating the reasons for retrenchment and the period of the notice that has expired or the workman has been paid, in lieu of such notice, wages for the period of the notice. The workman shall also be paid compensation equivalent to 15 days' average pay for each completed year of continuous service. A notice shall also be served on the appropriate government.

              Industrial Disputes Act 1947 http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=194714 

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           Employees Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act 1952

           This Act seeks to ensure the financial security of the employees in an establishment by providing for a system of compulsory savings. The Act provides for establishments of a contributory Provident Fund in which employees' contribution shall be at least equal to the contribution payable by the employer. Minimum contribution by the employees shall be 10-12% of the wages. This amount is payable to the employee after retirement and could also be withdrawn partly for certain specified purposes.

   

           Payment of Bonus Act 1965

          The payment of Bonus Act provides for the payment of bonus to persons employed in certain establishments on the basis of profits or on the basis of production or productivity. The Act is applicable to establishments employing 20 or more persons. The minimum bonus, which an employer is required to pay even if he suffers losses during the accounting year is 8.33% of the salary.

           Payment of Bonus Act 1965 http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=196521

   

           Payment of Gratuity Act 1972

           The Payment of Gratuity Act provides for a scheme for the payment of gratuity to all employees in all establishments employing ten or more employees to all types of workers. Gratuity is payable to an employee on his retirement/resignation at the rate of 15 days salary of the employee for each completed year of service subject to a maximum of Rs. 350,000 ($ 7778).

             Payment of Gratuity Act 1972 http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=197239

   

           Maternity Benefit Act 1961

         The Maternity Benefit Act regulates the employment of the women in certain establishments for a prescribed period before and after childbirth and provides certain other benefits. The Act does not apply to any factory or other establishment to which the Employees State Insurance Act 1948 is applicable. Every women employee who has actually worked in an establishment for a period of at least 80 days during the12 months immediately proceeding the date of her expected delivery, is entitled to receive maternity benefits under the Act. The employer is thus required to pay maternity benefits and/or medical bonus and allow maternity leave and nursing breaks.

             Maternity Benefit Act 1961 http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=196153

   

           Industrial Employment (Standing orders) Act 1946

           The Industrial Employment Act requires employers in industrial establishments to clearly define the conditions of employment by issuing standing orders duly certified. Model standing orders issued under the Act deal with classification of workmen, holidays, shifts, payment of wages, leaves, termination etc.

            Industrial Employment (Standing orders) Act 1946 http://indiacode.nic.in/fullact1.asp?tfnm=194620

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